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Literature used to prepare this website

The following two sources are the best we have found for general information on all groups:

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts. This is a beautiful book. It has wonderful illustrations and a wealth of information about many different taxonomic groups.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996.An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. We call this book 'the bible' in our lab. It has the most complete set of taxonomic keys to the genus level for all groups found in North America.


Other helpful works for North Dakota bugs (and others):


Burks, B.D. 1953 (reprint 1975). The Mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Original: Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana IL. Reprint: Entomological Reprint Specialists. Los Angeles, CA.

Gordon, Robert D. and Post, Richard L. 1965. North Dakota Water Beetles. North Dakota Insects - Publication #5, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.

Jacobson, Lee A. 1969. The aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera of North Dakota. Masters Thesis, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. Harris, S.C., Lago P.K., and R.B. Carlson, 1980. Preliminary survey of the Trichoptera of North Dakota. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 82(1): 39-43

Lehmkuhl, Dennis M. 1979. How to know the aquatic insects, The Picture Key Nature Series. Dubuque, IA.

Needham, J.G., Westfall, M.J. Jr. and May, M.L. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL.

Westfall, Minter J. Jr. and May, Michael L. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL.

Wiggins, Glenn B. 1996. Larvae of the North Amerian Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), Second Ed. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.


Coleoptera sources

Gordon D. Robert and Post L. Richard. North Dakota Water Beetles. Department of Entomology Agricultural Experiment Station North Dakota State University.

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (White S. David Coleoptera).

Stehr, Frederick W. 1987. Immature Insects, Volume 1. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, IA.


Collembola sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Aquatic Collembola: Kenneth A. Christiansen, Richard J. Snider).


Diptera sources

McAlpine, J. F., Peterson, B. V., Shewell, G. E., Teskey, H. J., Vockeroth, J. R., and Wood, D. M., 1981. Manual of Neartic Diptera, Volume 1. Biosystematics Research Institute. Ottawa, Ontario.

McAlpine, J. F., Peterson, B. V., Shewell, G. E., Teskey, H. J., Vockeroth, J. R., and Wood, D. M., 1987. Manual of Neartic Diptera, Volume 2. Biosystematics Research Institute. Ottawa, Ontario.

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Courtney, G. W., Merritt, R. W., Teskey, H. J., and Foote, B. A. Aquatic Diptera, Part One. Larvae of Aquatic Diptera.)

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Merritt, Richard W., Schlinger, Evert I., and Webb, Donald W. Aquatic Diptera, Part Two. Pupae and Adults of Aquatic Diptera.)

Stehr, Frederick W. 1991. Immature Insects, Volume 2. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, IA.


Ephemeroptera sources

Burks, B.D. 1953 (reprint 1975). The Mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Original: Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana IL. Reprint: Entomological Reprint Specialists. Los Angeles, CA.

Edmunds, George F., Jensen, Steven L., and Berner, Lewis. The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, MN.

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Edmunds, G. F., Jr. and Waltz, R. D. Ephemeroptera.)


Hemiptera sources

Hungerford, Herbert Barker 1948. The Corixidae of the Western Hemisphere. University of Kansas Publications. Lawerance, KS.

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (John T. Polhemus).


Lepidoptera sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Aquatic and Semiaquatic Lepidoptera: W. H. Lange).


Megaloptera sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Megaloptera and Aquatic Neuroptera: Elwin D. Evans, H. H. Neunzig).


Neuroptera sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Megaloptera and Aquatic Neuroptera: Elwin D. Evans, H. H. Neunzig).


Odonata sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Westfall, Minter J., Jr. and Tennessen, Kenneth J. Odonata.)

Needham, J.G., Westfall, M.J. Jr. and May, M.L. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL.

Stehr, Frederick W. 1987. Immature Insects. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, IA.

Westfall, Minter J. Jr. and May, Michael L. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL.


Plecoptera sources

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Stewart, K. W. and Harper, P. P., Plecoptera)

Stehr, Frederick W. 1987. Immature Insects, Volume 1. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, IA.

Stewart, Kenneth W. and Stark, Bill P. 1988. The Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera (Plecoptera). Entomological Society of America. Hyattsville, MD.

Stewart, Kenneth W. and Stark, Bill P. 2002. Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera (Plecoptera), Second Edition. The Caddis Press. Columbus, OH.


Trichoptera sources

Floyd, Michael A. 1995. Larvae of the Caddisfly Genus Oecetis (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in North America. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus OH.

Glover, James B. 1996. Larvae of the Caddisfly Genera Triaenodes and Ylodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in North America. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, OH.

McCafferty, W. Patrick 1999. Aquatic Entomology, The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Trichoptera Families: Glenn B. Wiggins)

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W., 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Third Edition. Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. (Trichoptera Genera: John C. Morse, Ralph W. Holzenthal).

Schefter, Patricia W. and Wiggins, Glenn B. 1986. A Systematic Study of the Nearctic Larvae of the Hydropsyche morosa Group (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). The Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto Canada.

Wiggins, Glenn B. 1998. Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera) Second Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto Buffalo London.

Wiggins, Glenn B. 1998. The Caddisfly Family Phryganeidae (Trichoptera). University of Toronto Press, Toronto Buffalo London.

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